Tag Archives: marine science

Black gill stakeholders meeting set for June 22

As the 2016 Georgia shrimping season gets underway, the University of Georgia Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant, and the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography will host a meeting to present the latest research and other information on black gill in Georgia and South Carolina shrimp. The meeting will be held at the UGA Marine Extension Aquarium at the north end of Skidaway Island in Savannah, Ga. on Wednesday, June 22, from 1-4 p.m.

Black gill is a condition affecting the coastal shrimp population. It is caused by a microscopic parasite. Many shrimpers believe black gill may be largely responsible for reduced shrimp harvests in recent years. UGA Skidaway Institute scientist Marc Frischer is leading a research project, now in its third year, into the causes and effects of black gill on the Georgia and South Carolina shrimp population.

A shrimp with the Black Gill condition clearly evident.

A shrimp with the Black Gill condition clearly evident.

The purpose of the meeting is to provide stakeholders, such as shrimpers, fish house owners, wholesalers or anyone else interested in black gill, with an update on black gill research efforts.  Frischer and South Carolina Department of Natural Resources scientist Amy Fowler and will present their latest research findings. UGA Marine Extension and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources will also provide updates. The meeting will be open to the public.

The meeting is for information purposes only. No management decisions will be made.

For additional information, contact Bryan Fluech, UGA Marine Extension, at (912) 264-7269.

What: Black Gill Stakeholders Meeting

When: Wednesday, June 22, 1-4: p.m.

Where: UGA  Aquarium, 30 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, Ga., 31411

Directions: http://marex.uga.edu/visit_aquarium/

‘Modena’ strikes oil

The UGA Skidaway Institute Autonomous Underwater Vehicle “Modena” found oil last summer, but not in the way anyone expected.

Modena was dispatched into the Gulf of Mexico as part of the ECOGIG (Ecosystem Impacts of Oil & Gas Inputs to the Gulf) research project to study the long-term effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the Gulf ecosystem. When the researchers, including Skidaway Institute scientist Catherine Edwards, recovered Modena, they discovered her fabric skin was covered with dark blotches. At first the team thought it was some sort of algae. Closer examination revealed the spots were created by oil droplets in the water.

Modena and  her oil-stained skin.

Modena and her oil-stained skin.

Oil stains on Modena's skin.

Oil stains on Modena’s skin.

Edwards and the team believe the oil stains were caused by droplets from the spill that have remained suspended in the water column.

UGA Skidaway Institute scientist stands atop the globe

 

UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography researcher Chris Marsay has stood on top of the world—literally.

Marsay arrived at the North Pole in early September and took part in the U.S .GEOTRACES Arctic Expedition on board the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy, a polar icebreaker.

Marsay at the North Pole in front of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy.

Marsay at the North Pole in front of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy.

The project is part of an international, multiple icebreaker effort to conduct geochemical sampling of the Arctic Ocean. The cruise arrived at 90 degrees north on Sept. 5 in what is the first occupation of the North Pole by an unaccompanied U.S. surface ship—submarines usually follow ships below the ice. While at the pole, the Healy rendezvoused with the German ship conducting the German leg of the GEOTRACES Arctic program.

Marsay with his gear at the North Pole.

Marsay with his gear at the North Pole.

Marsay is working with UGA Skidaway Institute professor Cliff Buck and scientists from Florida State University and Rutgers University. The research team was funded by the National Science Foundation to collect samples from the atmosphere, precipitation and surface water from melt ponds during the cruise.

“Our research goals are to describe the chemistry of atmospheric deposition to the region and quantify flux rates,” Buck said. “These data will then be shared with the scientific community to better understand biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and isotopes in the Arctic Ocean.”

Skidaway Institute participates in worldwide ocean snapshot

Scientists at the University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography joined researchers around the globe in a worldwide Ocean Sampling Day on Sunday, June 21, the summer solstice.

This was the second year Skidaway researchers have participated in the Ocean Sampling Day event. The first was conducted last year, also on the summer solstice. The event focuses on simultaneous sampling of microbes in ocean, coastal and Great Lakes waters.

This year, 191 marine research locations—from the Rothera Research Station in Antarctica to Göteborg University in Sweden—participated. The sampling program supports international missions to provide

“It’s a global effort to take a snapshot of microbes across the world’s oceans at the same time, on the same day, in this case, the summer solstice,” said Skidaway Institute professor Marc Frischer.

The Skidaway Institute team transfers a water sample from the Skidaway River during Ocean Sampling Day

The Skidaway Institute team transfers a water sample from the Skidaway River during Ocean Sampling Day

Frischer cited the significance of the project by describing microbes as the “engines of our planet” and said half the oxygen in the atmosphere is produced by microbes in the ocean.

Skidaway Institute scientists collected samples at two locations. One team collected and processed samples from the Skidaway River estuary immediately adjacent to the Skidaway Institute campus. That also served as part of an ongoing water-quality monitoring program Skidaway Institute has supported for more than 25 years. A second group teamed up with scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary and collected samples from Gray’s Reef. The 14,000-acre marine sanctuary is located about 17 miles off the Sapelo Island coast.

“We helped Gray’s Reef by collecting and processing their samples in the way they needed to be done,” Frischer said. “You really need a laboratory for that, and we were able to provide that.”

One goal of the global project is to note the commonalities and the differences among the microbial communities around the globe. Some of those differences were seen just in the samples collected at Gray’s Reef and at the Skidaway campus, two sites only 40 miles apart.

Grad student LaGina Frazier lowers a disc used to measure turbidity into the water off the UGA Skidaway Institute dock.

Grad student LaGina Frazier lowers a sensor into the water off the UGA Skidaway Institute dock.

“We generally observe a larger number of smaller organisms out in the ocean, which makes sense because they are adapting to a system with lower nutrients,” Frischer said. “We also saw a different kind of photosynthetic organisms since there is much more light available in the ocean compared to rather turbid waters in our estuary.”

Much of the fieldwork at both Skidaway Institute and Gray’s Reef was handled by undergraduate college students gaining research experience at Skidaway Institute this summer. These included students from UGA and Savannah State University’s Research Experience for Undergraduates program.

All samples and data were sent to Bremen, Germany, for DNA extraction and sequencing to ensure maximum comparability. The resulting data will be made publicly available as soon as quality checks are finished. These cumulative samples, related in time, space and environmental parameters, will provide insights into fundamental rules describing microbial diversity and function and contribute to the blue, or oceanic, economy through the identification of novel, ocean-derived biotechnologies.

Ocean Sampling Day was jointly coordinated by Jacobs University in Bremen, Germany, and the University of Oxford in the U.K. and is part of the European Union-funded Ocean of Tomorrow research project Micro B3.

“It is really important to have a global perspective,” Frischer said. “We are glad we can participate in what they are now calling “gigascience” where we are collecting a snapshot from all over the world. It is amazing!”

Additional information on the global Ocean Sampling Day project is available at www.microb3.eu/osd.

A video of Ocean Sampling Day is available on the Skidaway Institute YouTube Channel at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5c8JuzvLUH8

UGA Skidaway Institute scientist shares Gulf oil spill research grant

UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography scientist Catherine Edwards is part of a research team that has received an $18.8 million grant to continue studies of natural oil seeps and track the impacts of the BP/Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

A satellite view of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

A satellite view of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Known as ECOGIG-2 or “Ecosystem Impacts of Oil and Gas Inputs to the Gulf,” the project is a collaborative, multi-institutional effort involving biological, chemical, geological and chemical oceanographers led by the University of Georgia’s Samantha Joye. The research team has worked in the Gulf since the weeks following the 2010 Macondo well blowout.

The three-year, $18.8 million ECOGIG-2 program was funded by the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, or GoMRI.

“Our goal is to better understand the processes that have affected the oil spill since 2010,” Edwards said. “How the droplets were dispersed? Where the oil went? How it was taken up by small microbes and also the effects on animals further up the food chain?”

Edwards’ role in the project is to use autonomous underwater vehicles, also called “gliders,” to collect data on conditions around the spill site. Equipped with sensors to measure characteristics such as depth, water temperature, salinity and density, the gliders can cruise the submarine environment for weeks at a time, collecting data and transmitting it back to a ship or a shore station.

Skidaway Institute scientist Catherine Edwards adjusts a glider’s buoyancy with graduate students Sungjin Cho and Dongsik Chan.

Skidaway Institute scientist Catherine Edwards adjusts a glider’s buoyancy with graduate students Sungjin Cho and Dongsik Chan.

“We want to understand the ocean currents—how they change over time and how they change in depth,” Edwards said. “Surface measurements give us a two-dimensional picture of the ocean. Glider data in the vertical provides more valuable information for more fully understanding ocean currents and how they arise.”

The gliders will operate in conjunction with shipboard instruments and also independently. One advantage of using the gliders is they can operate during storms and rough weather, when it may not be possible to use ships. Edwards said shipboard work doesn’t always give a full picture of ocean dynamics simply by the fact that they can only go out when the weather is reasonably clear.

When working in conjunction with research ships, the gliders can provide additional observations, significantly improving the quality of the data set. The gliders also report dissolved oxygen concentrations and optical measurements of chlorophyll and organic matter, and may also be used as a test vehicle for new instruments in development.

Edwards will use “GENIoS,” a new software package, to help navigate the gliders. GENIoS uses high-resolution forecast models of wind and ocean currents, along with information from the glider itself, to calculate the optimal path for the gliders. This will improve the quality of the scientific data collected.

GENIoS is a collaboration among Edwards, Fumin Zhang from the Georgia Institute of Technology and their two Georgia Tech Ph.D. students, Dongsik Chang and Sungjin Cho. GENIos has been tested for more than 210 glider-days on the continental shelf off Georgia and South Carolina. This experiment will be its first test in the Gulf of Mexico.

Edwards also hopes to use this project to test the gliders as platforms for new, experimental sensors developed by other members of the ECOGIG-2 team.

Others involved in ECOGIG-2 include UGA marine sciences faculty Christof Meile, Renato Castelao and Catherine Edwards as well as Annalisa Bracco and Joe Montoya of Georgia Tech.

For additional information, contact Catherine Edwards at (912) 598-2471 or catherine.edwards@skio.uga.edu.

Shrimpers, others join UGA Skidaway Institute Black Gill research cruise

UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography scientists are studying a condition in shrimp found along the Southeast Coast known as Black Gill. As part of this effort, a group that included UGA Skidaway Institute scientists and representatives from Georgia Sea Grant, UGA Marine Extension, Georgia DNR, the shrimping industry and researchers from North and South Carolina joined a one-day research cruise on board the R/V Savannah on October 9. The focus of the cruise was to collect shrimp for the Black Gill research project, and also to give the various groups the opportunity to exchange ideas. This account of the project comes from UGA Skidaway Institute scientist and cruise-organizer Marc Frischer.

We had 20 people on board (not including the ship’s crew), representing three states (Ga. S.C. and N.C.) and interests from the industry, management, research, and education/outreach communities. Although sometimes the conversations were outside of my comfort zone, I found the discussions and interactions that I had interesting, significant and useful. I found particularly interesting the perspectives from some of the professional shrimpers who were onboard made it clear to me that a research priority should be investigating the relationship between shrimp mortality in the field and the incidence of Black Gill. Discussions with the management community also provided me new insights into the difficulties we are facing with management and regulation. Conversations with those charged with communicating with the broader public remind me to choose words carefully to avoid misunderstanding.

A shrimp with the Black Gill condition clearly evident.

A shrimp with the Black Gill condition clearly evident.

In terms of the science, the day was largely successful despite the very low shrimp catches. Our priority was to collect enough live shrimp to conduct experiments to investigate black gill transmission and to explore the effect of ciliate infection on molting frequency. Although there were not many shrimp caught, we caught enough to conduct our planned experiments, and we were able to bring live shrimp into our facilities with almost no mortality. Utilizing the relatively large R/V Savannah and being able to dock within feet of our labs made this possible.

Skidaway Institute professor Marc Frischer examining a shrimp.

Skidaway Institute professor Marc Frischer examining a shrimp.

Thanks goes to the director of the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (Jim Sanders) for making the vessel available to us. Cost for the ship is not covered by funding provided by Georgia Sea Grant and was provided as matching funds by the Institute.

Experiments got underway immediately upon our return and will continue for the next several weeks. If anyone is interested and wants to visit the lab for an update you are welcome to do so.

DNR's Pat Geer and Sea Grant's Jill Gambill sort through the marine life caught in a trawl.

DNR’s Pat Geer and Sea Grant’s Jill Gambill sort through the marine life caught in a trawl.

In addition to collecting live specimens, we were able to collect and preserve samples for a large variety of other analyses that will contribute to our identification of the Black Gill agent and to understanding its impact on shrimp. Several of the samples we collected are now on their way to various labs around the world where researchers with expertise beyond ours will study them.

Also, for the first time, we, collected water and sediments to be examined using our novel molecular-based diagnostic tools that are just now coming online. These studies will form the basis of a student project and thus generate both new information and new talent.

The team from the October Black Gill cruise.

The team from the October Black Gill cruise.

Unfortunately, because we were not able to catch more shrimp, we were not able to quantify the prevalence of Black Gill along the transect we sampled (offshore Wassaw Island, Wassaw Sound, and the Wilmington and Skidaway Rivers). However, this is a task valiantly undertaken by the GA DNR who had just visited the area in September and will be at it again. However, in addition to observing that catches were low everywhere, we were able to estimate a prevalence in the neighborhood of 50 percent. Except for offshore where we only caught one shrimp and it had black gill (so 100 percent). Two insights from this experience — first, our observations agree very well with DNR’s estimates and it is clear that we are probably not sampling sufficiently. Second — engaging the fishing community in this effort, if we can do so in a scientifically sound manner, will be truly helpful.

UGA Skidaway Institute scientists conduct winter 26-hour sampling program

On the weekend of January 24th, a team lead by UGA Skidaway Institute scientist Aron Stubbins conducted the latest “26 Hours on the Marsh” sampling program on the bluff at Groves Creek on the Skidaway Institute campus. The project was designed to investigate how salt marshes function and interact with their surrounding environment—specifically how bacteria consume and process carbon in the marsh. The team collected water samples throughout two complete tidal cycles, during both the day and night.

The outdoor laboratory on the bluff at Groves Creek.

The outdoor laboratory on the bluff at Groves Creek.

Skidaway Institute's Zac Tait, Thais Bittar, Rob Spencer (FSU) and Aron Stubbins prepare for a sample collection.

Skidaway Institute’s Zac Tait, Thais Bittar, Rob Spencer (FSU) and Aron Stubbins prepare for a sample collection.

Zac Tait collects a water sample from a skiff tied to the bank.

Zac Tait collects a water sample from a skiff tied to the bank.

Thais Bittar and Zac Tait begin to process the water sample.

Thais Bittar and Zac Tait begin to process the water sample.

About a dozen scientists and students were involved in the project. “26 Hours on the Marsh” is supported by two grants from the National Science Foundation. The grants total $1.7 million that represent larger, three-year, multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary research projects into salt marsh activity. These projects bring together faculty, students and staff from UGA’s Skidaway Institute, the University of Tennessee, Florida State University and Woods Hole Research Center. UGA Skidaway Institute scientists include principal investigator Jay Brandes; chemical oceanographers Aron Stubbins and Bill Savidge; physical oceanographers Dana Savidge, Catherine Edwards and Jack Blanton; and geologist Clark Alexander.

UGA Skidaway Institute scientists map Wassaw Sound

A research team from the University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography has completed the first high-resolution, bathymetric (bottom-depth) survey of Wassaw Sound in Chatham County.

Led by UGA Skidaway Institute scientist Clark Alexander, the team produced a detailed picture of the bottom of Wassaw Sound, the Wilmington River and other connected waterways. The yearlong project was developed in conjunction with the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.

This shows a wide view of the Wassaw Sound survey map. Shallow areas are shown in orange and yellow, deeper areas in green and blue.

This shows a wide view of the Wassaw Sound survey map. Shallow areas are shown in orange and yellow, deeper areas in green and blue.

The survey provides detailed information about the depth and character of the sound’s bottom. This information will be useful to boaters, but boating safety was not the primary aim of the project. The primary objective was to map bottom habitats for fisheries managers. DNR conducts fish surveys in Georgia sounds, but, according to Alexander, they have limited knowledge of what the bottom is like. “One of the products we developed is an extrapolated bottom character map,” Alexander said. “This describes what the bottom grain size is like throughout the sound. Is it coarse, or shelly or muddy? This is very important in terms of what kind of habitat there is for marine life.”

A second goal was to provide detailed bathymetric data to incorporate into computer models that predict storm surge flooding caused by hurricanes and other major storms. Agencies like the United States Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration use mathematical models to predict anticipated storm inundation and flooding for specific coastal areas. A key factor in an accurate modeling exercise is the bathymetry of the coastal waters.

“You need to know how the water will pile up, how it will be diverted and how it will be affected by the bottom morphology,” Alexander said. “Since we have a gently dipping coastal plain, storm inundation can reach far inland. It is important to get it as right as we can so the models will provide us with a better estimate of where storm inundation and flooding will occur.”

Funded by an $80,000 Coastal Incentive Grant from DNR, Alexander and his research team, consisting of Mike Robinson and Claudia Venherm, used a cutting-edge interferometric side-scan sonar system to collect bathymetry data. The sonar transmitter/receiver was attached to a pole and lowered into the water from Skidaway Institute’s 28-foot Research Vessel Jack Blanton. Unlike a conventional fishfinder, which uses a single pinger to measure depth under a boat, the Edgetech 4600 sonar array uses fan-shaped sonar beams to both determine water depth and bottom reflectivity, which identifies sediment type, rocky outcroppings and bedforms, in a swath across the boat’s direction of travel.

The actual process of surveying the sound involved long hours of slowly driving the boat back and forth on long parallel tracks. On each leg, the sonar produced a long, narrow strip indicating the depth and character of the sound bottom. Using high-resolution Global Positioning System data that pinpointed the boat’s exact location, the system assembled the digital strips of data into a complete picture of the survey area.

Skidaway Institute of Oceanography research coordinator Claudia Venherm logs survey activity on board the R/V Jack Blanton.

Skidaway Institute of Oceanography research coordinator Claudia Venherm logs survey activity on board the R/V Jack Blanton.

All the other sounds on the Georgia coast were mapped in 1933, but for some reason data from that time period for Wassaw Sound was unavailable. When the team began this project, they believed they were conducting the first survey of the sound. However, just as the researchers were finishing the project, NOAA released data from a 1994 single-beam survey that had been conducted in advance of the 1996 Olympic yachting races that were held in and near Wassaw Sound.

“This worked out very well for our project, because we are able to compare the differences between the two surveys conducted 20 years apart,” Alexander said. “We see areas that have accumulated sediment by more than 2 meters, and we also see areas that have eroded more than 2 meters since 1994. Channels have shifted and bars have grown or been destroyed.”

Because of advances in technology, the current survey is significantly richer in detail than the one conducted in 1994. “We can zoom down to a square 25 centimeters (less than a foot) on a side and know the bottom depth,” Alexander said.

The survey produced a number of findings that were surprising. The intersection of Turner Creek and the Wilmington River is a deep, busy waterway. Although most of the area is deep, the survey revealed several pinnacles sticking up 20 feet off the bottom. “They are round and somewhat flat, almost like underwater mesas,” Alexander said.

The researchers determined that the deepest place mapped in the study area was a very steep-sided hole, 23 meters deep, in the Half Moon River where it is joined by a smaller tidal creek. They also found several sunken barges and other vessels.

The survey data set is available to the public on the Georgia Coastal Hazards Portal at http://gchp.skio.usg.edu/. Alexander warns that while boaters should find the survey interesting, the information is intended for habitat research and storm surge modeling, not for navigation. “Because the bottom of Wassaw Sound is always shifting and changing, as our survey showed, don’t rely on the data for safe navigation,” he cautioned.

Alexander has already received a grant for an additional survey, this time of Ossabaw Sound, the next sound south of Wassaw Sound. He expects work to begin on that survey in early 2015.

UGA study finds high marine debris, need for standardized reporting along Georgia coast

By Molly Kate Berg

University of Georgia researchers are hoping to find a consistent way to record the marine debris—particularly pieces of plastic—crowding Georgia’s beaches as part of an effort to find a solution for the growing problem.

Marine debris has been washing up on Georgia beaches and uninhabited islands for years. Combating the issue starts with figuring out how big it is, and a new two-part study from the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography and Marine Extension published online in the Marine Pollution Bulletin finds that marine debris reporting can improve if it becomes standardized.

A sample of marine debris collected along the Georgia coast sits on a table at the UGA Marine Education Center and Aquarium.

A sample of marine debris collected along the Georgia coast sits on a table at the
UGA Marine Education Center and Aquarium.

The problem right now is this: A volunteer group goes out and records the weight or volume of the marine debris collected. However, volunteers don’t often record the specific square feet measured or the contents of the debris. Due to a lack of report standardization, researchers often can’t compare the marine debris, especially plastic fragments, reported by different groups.

“We’ve seen plastic usage go up dramatically,” said study co-author Dodie Sanders, a marine educator and outreach coordinator for UGA Marine Extension, a unit of the Office of Public Service and Outreach. “It’s an important 21st century global issue. We need to learn more to better understand the issues of marine debris.”

The study’s lead author Richard F. Lee, professor emeritus with the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, agrees.

“Plastic debris is created on land and then it goes into rivers, flows into the ocean and washes up on land,” he said. “We’ve found that plastic debris ends up not only on populated beaches, but on inaccessible islands as well. We’ve found plastic everywhere on the coast.”

The first part of the study gathered debris from 20 sites along Georgia’s coast, including Tybee, Cumberland and Ossabaw islands. The debris was reported from volunteer organizations like Clean Coast, which hold monthly beach and marsh cleanups in Georgia.

“The volunteer groups reported the weight of the debris, though we didn’t know the exact amount of plastic,” Lee said. “Based off the volunteer information we received, we did a follow-up study to more precisely measure the marine debris in a fixed location and period of time.”

The total collected debris ranged from 180 to 1,000 kilograms. The levels of plastic debris differed at each site over the course of the study, though plastic was consistently among the mix. Found plastic included bottles, wrappers, food utensils and fragments of fishing gear.

Sanders spearheaded the second part of the study, where she and students collected plastic debris from Skidaway and Wassaw islands over a period of two years.

“While Dr. Lee did data analysis, I did some of the field work,” Sanders said. “We picked the two islands in the second part of the study because they were accessible sites where Marine Extension often takes students for marine education.”

For the fieldwork, Sanders and students visited the islands each month. They took inventory of what kinds of plastics were on specific areas of the coast.

“On about a monthly basis, I would take students to learn about debris and tally all the items on the islands,” Sanders said. “We took areas of 200 meters by 40 meters and recorded the items found. We also used GPS units to mark what areas we had done.”

The students, many of them in middle and high school, came from all over Georgia to assist. As part of Marine Extension, Sanders regularly teaches visiting students about marine life. When students volunteered to clean up, she tried to emphasize the issues surrounding debris.

“The bulk of the plastic comes from land,” Sanders said. “When people think of marine debris, they think of the ocean. I try to emphasize watershed concepts—what happens upstream ultimately gets downstream.”

“It can take years for plastic to degrade,” Lee said, adding, “80 percent of the plastic found at Wassaw turned out to be fragments. The fragments then spread and can have a number of environmental effects.”

Participants in a July 2014 teacher’s workshop focusing on marine debris sift through the sands of Tybee Island in search of microplastic particles.

Participants in a July 2014 teacher’s workshop focusing on marine debris sift
through the sands of Tybee Island in search of microplastic particles.

Sanders says that since plastic debris is everywhere on the coast, it has to be addressed and reported efficiently to reduce its effects.

“There are proactive and reactive approaches to the issues of marine debris, and both are important,” she said. “We’ve been reactive so far by picking up debris. The proactive approach is our role in educating the public and researching the negative impacts of marine debris.”

The study was supported by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources Coastal Incentive Grant, NOAA Southeast Atlantic Marine Debris Initiative and the NOAA Marine Debris Program.

The full article on “The amount and accumulation rate of plastic debris on marshes and beaches on the Georgia coast” is available at www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X14008200#.