UGA Aquarium’s Genell Gibson receives award for service

PSO_Gibson_Genell-240x300The administrative assistant and manager of the UGA Marine Education Center and Aquarium, Genell Gibson, received a Staff Award for Excellence on April 1 at the university’s 28th annual Public Service and Outreach Meeting and Awards Luncheon. Gibson was one of eight faculty and staff members recognized for outstanding service to the state and UGA.

Gibson has been a staple at the aquarium since 1994. She greets incoming visitors, manages fees and admission, maintains the education resource center and directs incoming calls and requests.

Gibson excels at all of her listed duties, but it is her other contributions that set her apart. During her 24 years as a member of Marine Extension and Sea Grant, she has transformed the role beyond its regular office-based duties by serving as a teacher, historian and friend to everyone who visits and works at the facility.

Born and raised in the local community of Pin Point, Gibson picked blue crab for a living as a young adult, a skill she now shares with visitors in the Saturday Explorations at the Aquarium programs.

Gibson also discusses her unique Gullah/Geechee heritage, providing people with a special perspective on the life, work and history of the Georgia coast.

Gibson serves as the face of the UGA Aquarium, where she is often the first person to interact with the more than 20,000 visitors each year. She acts as the intermediary between staff and visitors, exemplifying Marine Extension’s “each one, teach one” principle. Her role is critical to understanding how visitors view the facility and how to improve their experience.

“Genell Gibson is the heart and soul of the Marine Education Center and Aquarium,” said Mark Risse, director of Marine Extension and Sea Grant. “She teaches us daily what is means to be thoughtful, helpful and courteous humans. She reminds us all how fortunate we are to work and live on Georgia’s coast.

“Genell is our historian,” Risse also said. “She is our link to the human history of Skidaway Island during the Roebling era, our link to the long-retired workers who hail from her community of Pin Point, our link to oyster and crabbing culture, our link to the fine folk who love this coastal area and choose to live and work here.”

Van Stan receives award for research excellence

VanStan_1252-200x300The acting director of the Applied Coastal Research Laboratory, John Van Stan, is the recipient of Georgia Southern University’s Award for Excellence in Research/Creative Scholarly Activity for 2019-2020.

“This is a very prestigious award and one that is well deserved on John’s part,” said James Reichard, chair of Georgia Southern’s Geology and Geography Department where Van Stan is an associate professor. “He has established a truly outstanding research record, and one that I’m quite confident is among the very best in the university.”

The Award for Excellence in Research/Creative Scholarly Activity seeks to recognize faculty who excel in their research efforts in addition to fulfilling regular full-time teaching responsibilities.

Barn renovation progressing

The renovation of the Roebling cattle barn at UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography is progressing with the expectation the project will be substantially completed by August 22.

Work began in late 2018 to transform the show barn a into usable laboratory and classroom space. The renovation got the green light in 2016 when the Georgia General Assembly appropriated $3 million to fund the project.


The building will house two state-of-the-art classrooms and a one large teaching lab, all capable of distance learning. There will be two faculty offices, a reception area, two student group offices and generous open collaboration space.

The ribbon cutting ceremony is scheduled for October 22.

The concrete and steel beam structure was built in 1947, when the Skidaway campus was known as Modena Plantation, and Robert and Dorothy Roebling raised black angus cattle there. In 1968, the Roeblings donated their land to the state of Georgia, a move that spurred the establishment of Skidaway Institute of Oceanography. The Roeblings constructed the barn after World War II. It was the site of the plantation’s annual cattle auctions. Roebling’s daughter, Ellin Cochran Roebling, was married there in 1950.

Since then, the barn has served a variety of purposes. In recent years, it was used primarily for storage. Because it was not heated or air conditioned, it was not suitable for classrooms or laboratories. The renovations will allow UGA Skidaway Institute to repurpose the 14,000-square-foot facility to include research laboratories, a teaching laboratory and lecture space for students and community groups.

The renovation was designed by Cogdell & Mendrala Architects. New South Construction is the general contractor.

Gray’s Reef new marine ops coordinator

NOAA Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary welcomes a new marine operations coordinator.

Clayton Louden is the sanctuary’s vessel captain and marine operations coordinator. Captain Louden will oversee vessel operations for the site, while captaining the sanctuary’s two small boats — R/V Sam Gray and R/V Joe Ferguson. Louden will be responsible for boat maintenance, vessel safety procedures, and utilizing all NOAA regulations and policies to ensure efficient and dependable boat handling.

Louden underwent United States Coast Guard training at Alaska’s Institute of Technology Maritime Center. He earned numerous licenses, including his U.S.C.G. Master 100-Ton Near Coastal License. He brings more than six years’ experience on multiple types of vessels, sailing waters from Seattle to Prudhoe Bay and many locations in between. Louden also participated in a 30-day offshore expedition from Key West to Maine and back as a delivery crew member and deckhand on the 86’ schooner Appledore.

UGA Skidaway Institute gliders improve hurricane predictions

The models hurricane forecasters use to predict the paths of storms have become much more accurate in recent years, but not so much the models’ ability to accurately predict a storm’s intensity. Now, underwater gliders, operated by researchers at the University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, are part of a national effort to use marine robots to improve the accuracy of storm forecast models.

UGA Skidaway Institute research technician Ben Hefner launches a glider into the ocean. Photo courtesy MADLAWMEDIA

Two storms from the 2018 hurricane season provide examples of how quickly storm intensity can change. Hurricane Florence was predicted to be a Category 5 storm, but she weakened significantly before making landfall in North Carolina as a Category 1 storm on September 14. On the other hand, a month later, Hurricane Michael grew from a Category 1 to a Category 5 storm in just two days and hit the Florida panhandle on October 10.

Hurricanes feed off of heat from warm ocean waters like that found in the Caribbean, and in the Gulf Stream and shallow waters off the southeast United States, known as the South Atlantic Bight. This can be a tremendous source of energy for developing storms. Heat is transferred between the ocean and atmosphere at the ocean’s surface, but it is important to understand the amount of subsurface heat as well.

“Places where warm waters near the surface lie over cooler water near bottom, winds and other factors can mix up the water, cooling the surface and limiting the heat available to the atmosphere,” UGA Skidaway Institute researcher Catherine Edwards said. “Satellite data provides a nice picture of where the surface ocean is warm, but the subsurface temperature field remains hidden.”

UGA Skidaway Institute researcher Catherine Edwards examines the tail assembly of a glider.

This is where autonomous underwater vehicles, also known as gliders, can collect valuable information. Gliders are torpedo-shaped crafts that can be packed with sensors and sent on underwater missions to collect oceanographic data. The gliders measure temperature and salinity, among other parameters, as they profile up and down in the water. Equipped with satellite phones, the gliders surface periodically to transmit their recorded data during missions that can last from weeks to months.

“This regular communication with the surface allows us to adapt the mission on the fly, and also process and share the data only minutes to hours after it has been measured,” Edwards said. “By using a network of data contributed by glider operators around the world, the U. S. Navy and other ocean modelers can incorporate these data into their predictions, injecting subsurface heat content information into the hurricane models from below.”

The 2018 hurricane season provided Edwards and her colleagues a fortuitous opportunity to demonstrate the value of glider data. Edwards deployed two gliders in advance of Hurricane Florence. One was launched off the North Carolina coast and the other further south, near the South Carolina-Georgia state line. The gliders discovered the models’ ocean temperature forecasts were significantly off target. Edwards points to charts comparing the predictions from ocean models run in the U.S. and Europe with the actual temperatures two days before Florence made landfall.

On the south side of the storm path, the models predicted that the ocean had a warm, slightly fresh layer overtopping cooler, saltier water below, but the glider revealed that the water column was well-mixed and, overall, warmer and fresher than predicted. On the north side of the storm, the models predicted warm, well-mixed water, but the glider detected a sharp temperature change below the surface, with a much cooler layer near-bottom. However, the most surprising part was just how stratified the water was.

“There is almost a 14-degree Celsius (approximately 25 degrees Fahrenheit) error that the glider corrects in the model,” she said. “The model and data agree near-surface, but the models that don’t use the glider data all miss the colder, saltier layer below. The model that incorporated glider data that day is the only one that captures that vertical pattern.”

Not only can gliders provide a unique view of the ocean, they fly on their own, reporting data regularly, before, during and after a hurricane, making them a powerful tool for understanding the effects of storms.

“The glider data is being used in real time,” Edwards said. “These real time observations can improve our hurricane forecasts right now, not just in a paper to be published a year from now.”

Edwards and collaborator Chad Lembke, at the University of South Florida, had a third glider deployed in August before Florence as part of a glider observatory she runs for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (SECOORA). While it was recovered about a little over a week before Florence made landfall, the glider helped define the edge of the Gulf Stream, which is an essential ocean feature that is very hard for models to get right.

“So it’s possible that the data from that glider already improved any tropical storm predictions that use ocean models and take that glider data into account, because the Gulf Stream is so important in our region,” Edwards said.

Edwards works with colleagues from other institutions through SECOORA. Together they are making plans for the 2019 hurricane season. Funded by a $220,000 grant from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, they plan to pre-position a number of gliders in strategic locations to be ready for deployment in advance of incoming storms.

“Gliders are like the weather balloons of the ocean,” Edwards said. “Imagine how powerful a regular network of these kinds of glider observations could be for understanding the ocean and weather, and how they interact.”

UGA Skidaway Institute presents “Open Lab Night” on Aug. 13

The University of Georgia Skidaway Institute of Oceanography will present an “Open Lab Night” as part of its Evening @ Skidaway series on Tuesday, Aug 13. Visitors will have the opportunity to visit informally with scientists in their laboratories.

The program will begin with a reception at 6:30 p.m., followed by lab visits until 8 p.m. at 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, GA 31411.

The scientists participating in the program will include physical oceanographer Catherine Edwards, who uses underwater gliders to help improve hurricane predictions. Chemist Jay Brandes will also open his lab. Brandes is studying the prevalence of microplastics in Georgia’s coastal waters.

The program is open to the public, and admission is free. For additional information, call (912) 598-2325 or email

My First Oceanographic Research Cruise/Adventure to Easter Island

By Herb Windom

Editor’s note: Dr. Herb Windom was the first faculty scientist hired at Skidaway Institute of Oceanography in 1968. He spent his entire career here. He is now retired and an emeritus professor.

I was fortunate to have the opportunity to obtain my graduate education at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) from 1963-1968. A major part of the SIO curriculum, implemented in the mid-1960’s, was the development of an annual summer field course built around a departmental sea-going expedition. On these expeditions, organized around staff research projects, students participated in field work at sea, on islands and on adjacent continental areas, carrying on studies in marine and terrestrial geology, geochemistry and geophysics. Formal lectures and seminars were given on the ship by staff members and visiting professors. Much of the work was published by the students themselves. One of these cruises was the Carrousel Expedition (summer 1964) in which my fellow first year students and I participated. Although this expedition occurred more than a half century ago, and although I have participated in numerous since, I still have the most vivid detailed memories of this one. I think it also has to do with the quality of the people who were part of this experience and its distinct time and location. This also was the first time I would leave the U.S., except for a couple of day trips to Mexican border towns.

The Expedition Carrousel and would take more than two months and go from San Diego down the eastern Pacific, south to Easter Island, then to Valparaíso, Chile, and then back to San Diego. The ship was the R/V Spencer F. Baird (named after a famous American naturalist of the 19th century). The R/V Baird was 135 feet long and could carry up to 35 crew and scientists. The R/V Baird was a decommissioned navy sea-going tug.

rv baird

Research Vessel Baird Photo courtesy of UC San Diego Library

There were only five students on the cruise (four first-year students and another, Bill Dowd, who was nearing the end of his thesis research). There were a couple of technicians, one being Min Koide, who was a great, warm-hearted guy who was very special to me with his help in my development of practical skills in the lab. The team also included a postdoc, Rudy Bieri, who worked with Professor Goldberg. Goldberg would later become my major professor and thesis advisor. The crew consisted of a captain, first and second mates, engineer, doctor, 3 or 4 able-bodied seamen and two cooks.

There were three SIO professors on the San Diego to Valparaíso, Chili leg of the cruise; Ed Goldberg and Harmon Craig, both marine geochemists. Marine geologist Bill Menard was the chief scientist on the cruise. In addition, Sir Edward (Teddy) Bullard, the most famous British geophysicist of his generation, also participated in the cruise. All four of these scientists interrupted their scientific training and work to serve in their respective countries’ navies during World War II, and all four were destined to become members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for their contributions to aid our understanding of Earth’s processes. At the time, I didn’t recognize the depth of experience represented by the men around me — men that I would work with, learn from, eat, talk and play cards with, and suffer through their continuous good-natured ribbing about my southern dialect. I would spend the next month with these men and would not appreciate the importance of this experience and the privilege it was to sail with them until much later in life.

As the ship left San Diego to head south, families and loved ones were at the dock to see us depart. As we entered the Pacific Ocean proper, the water was like glass and it was a beautiful day. Everyone was enjoying the smooth ride with just a bit of yawing of the ship as we steamed southward. That was one of the last times I saw John Booker (another first year student) topside until we reached Easter Island. He was seasickness’ first casualty. The rest of us began getting acquainted with the ship and were introduced to our responsibilities for the cruise. This included “standing watch.” Watches were eight hours on and eight hours off. This included everyone on the ship. The three daily watches started at midnight, 8 a.m. and 4 p.m. Students were assigned to the lab where their duties included maintaining the precision depth recorder or PDR. The PDR required attention when the depth scale changed and a note needed to be marked on the paper readout. Students were also responsible for making sure that the PDR didn’t run out of paper. This was before desktop computers. 

The PDR records were always collected on every research cruise. Back then, we still did not have a very complete understanding of ocean depth and bottom features. Menard was a pioneer in developing this knowledge for the Pacific Ocean, and that was his main scientific mission on this cruise — looking for unusual features and defining them better. One evening while I was on the 4 p.m.-midnight watch, the PDR started showing that the depth was decreasing rapidly. I called the bridge. They began to slow the ship and called the chief scientist. Menard came to the PDR lab to see what was going on and immediately realized that we were cruising over a seamount that had never been documented before. The ship spent the rest of the night going back and forth over this bottom feature to survey it in detail. Menard named the seamount after his wife, and it is now on all Pacific Ocean bathymetric charts.

In addition to acquiring more data on ocean bathymetry, bathythermographs (BTs) were deployed at every degree of longitude and latitude. A BT looked like a torpedo, but inside it contained a mechanical device that responded to temperature and pressure by moving a stylus that etched a gold-coated glass slide.  It was tethered to a wire and spooled out from a winch while the ship was underway, so that it dove to depths approaching 100 meters. It was then retrieved and the gold-coated slide removed and read using a microscope. The data was recorded in a log book. Today, there are much more sophisticated ways of gathering information on water column temperature changes with depth. 

A major objective of this cruise was to obtain water samples for analysis of noble gases (e.g., helium, neon, argon, etc.). Ed Goldberg and his team (Bieri and Koide) used one approach that involved deploying sampling devices attached to a hydrowire that was designed especially to collect samples that could be brought back to the surface sealed so that that they would not depressurize.

The sample could then be brought back to the lab, and later opened and analyzed under controlled conditions. Harmon Craig and his team (Dowd) used a simpler approach which collected samples in unpressurized samplers and collected the gases from the samples as soon as the samplers were taken off the hydrowire.

Other devices were also attached to the hydrowire at intervals to collect samples used to measure salinity and dissolved oxygen, and these same samplers, called Nansen Bottles, also recorded temperature. The depth of the samples was determined by where it was attached to the wire and how much wire was spooled off of the winch. A pair of reversing thermometers, one “protected” and the other “unprotected” from pressure, on the Nansen bottles, were also used to calculate the depth of sampling because often the hydrowire did not hang straight down because of deep currents.

Once all the samplers were deployed they were “soaked” for about a half hour to equilibrate with the temperature and pressure at their respective depths, after which a “messenger” (a weighted short cylinder that could fit over the wire) was slid down the wire. It would trigger the first sampler to close and release another messenger to slide down to the next, and so on. Depending on the depth (the average depth of the Pacific Ocean is about 3 miles) it could take several hours to complete the entire process.  

Of course the students were involved in every aspect of the sampling and analysis of samples for the various parameters. They also logged in data on data sheets (again, decades before personal computers) by hand. The days when we were on a sampling station were generally fun because the sea was usually calm, and everyone would be outside on the large afterdeck of the ship. It was a break from the boredom of cruising along with nothing to see except ocean from horizon to horizon.

Food on the ship was okay for the first couple of weeks, but it went downhill very rapidly after that. We had coffee or hot tea for breakfast with scrambled powdered eggs, stale bread for toast, and bacon (which seemed to be plentiful). Only powdered juices were available after the first week, so water was the main beverage with no ice. Other meals were cold cuts for lunch and canned stews, hashes, soups and vegetables (Fresh ones were gone after the first week.) for dinner. The R/V Baird was a small ship with very little freezer space. Several of my fellow students and I found a bunch of frozen steaks hidden in the corner of a walk-in freezer on the last leg of the cruise. We suspected the cook(s) planned on taking them home after we reached our home port.

Clipperton Atoll

At about a week and a half into the cruise we came to Clipperton Atoll. (An atoll is a circular island formed mainly from coral that grows around a volcanic island that slowly sinks because of the weight of the lava on the thin ocean crust. Eventually, all or most of the volcano is beneath the surface and what is left is an island that forms a ring of coral sand surrounding a lagoon. (Clipperton still has a bit of the original volcano that rises above the beaches.) Located about 800 miles southwest of Acapulco, Mexico, and a French possession, Clipperton was uninhabited, but in the early nineteenth century it had a very small community of people who maintained a lighthouse on the one outcrop of the original volcano.

We arrived at Clipperton Atoll around noon and used a lifeboat to go ashore. This was not a scientific stop but it was near our cruise track and the chief scientist and captain thought it would be a nice break from the monotony of the cruise. The island was relatively sparse of vegetation with only a few palm trees here and there. Blue-footed Boobies, which nest on the ground, were everywhere as well land crabs, which supposedly are poisonous. There were a number of relics of military equipment left over from when there was a small outpost of U.S. troops there during the second World War.

We stayed on the island until late afternoon and then went back to the ship where the crew was fishing with hand lines using bacon as bait. They were catching one fish after another. I had fishing line and hooks in anticipation of trading with the natives on Easter Island. (We were informed that we should bring things for trade on Easter Island, so I had brought some fishing gear, socks and a few cheap watches that I had bought in Tijuana before the cruise.) I shared the hooks and line with other students, and we found that we could catch fish with just the shiny hook. I can’t remember if the cooks prepared any of the fish or if we just threw them back.

We departed a few hours after sunset destined for another couple of weeks of anticipated boredom. Clipperton was a great treat and an education about a tropical island, which, to this point, I had only read about. Our attention now turned to Easter Island. Spending my whole life in the Southeastern U.S., I was not very worldly and had no idea what or where Easter Island was. We were all urged to read “Kon Tiki” by Thor Heyerdahl, which chronicled a voyage on a balsa raft from South America to Easter Island to support his theory that this was the way the island was populated.

On to Easter Island

The cruise to Easter Island took about two weeks going almost due south. It was fairly monotonous, only stopping at predetermined hydrocast stations for water sampling and BTs at every degree of longitude and latitude.   The seamount discovery, mentioned earlier, and one other bizarre event were the highlights of the expedition. One of the crew members, who loved fishing, would put out a line every time we were on a water sampling station. Once, while on station, a huge Mako shark started circling the ship. A creative crew member decided that he would put something to attract the shark on a large hook tied onto a strong line. His choice was a grapefruit. It worked! With the help of the chief scientist, Menard, the crewman hauled the great beast aboard. The shark turned out to be more than 10 feet in length. As the shark started flipping back and forth, everyone looked at each other thinking, “What do we do now?” It’s amazing how a ferocious man-eating animal brings out our most primitive instincts to kill it. So our chief scientist — soon to be inducted into the National Academy of Sciences and soon to become the Director of the prestigious U.S. Geological Survey — assumed the role of “Dispatcher in Chief” with a fire axe. The bloody mess was left to the students to clean up with fire hoses and shovels. Everyone else, except us students and the winch operator, went to lunch as the water sampling bottles “soaked.”

There was one important event that occurred on this leg of the cruise — crossing the Equator. This happened on June 22, 1964 at longitude 111° 31’ W.  As the ship crossed, all the ship’s alarms and whistles went off scaring the crap out of all of the students and a couple of new crewmen who had not crossed before. All on board who had not crossed the equator before, referred to as “pollywogs,” went through an initiation. This was like a fraternity initiation, just more compact. This included climbing masts and towers, and a bunch of other obnoxious stuff including kissing King Neptune’s belly, King Neptune being played by Ernest Kaipolumanu, a native Hawaiian crew member. Once you have completed the initiation you received your Sh.D. (Doctor of Shellbackosophy) diploma (I still have mine.) from the University of Pelagia signed by King Neptune and the chief scientist. Traditionally, King Neptune is the oldest Sh.D., or Shellback, on the ship.

Easter Island

The ship arrived offshore of Easter Island in the afternoon and was met by a number of dugout canoes carrying local natives, some of whom crawled aboard in spite of being discouraged from doing so. They had a variety of carvings to trade and I was ready. With a couple of fishing hooks, I could trade for a carving. After I had so many carvings, I began just giving the fish hooks away to the grateful crowd. There were a couple of female natives who came aboard with the men, and I heard later that they had something else to trade. Several of the crew apparently took advantage of this bit of local commerce.

There was no harbor on Easter Island that could accommodate anything other than a small boat. So we remained on the ship overnight but went ashore the next morning after breakfast by using the ship’s lifeboats that carried about a dozen men. Going into the small harbor the boats had to negotiate large swells and breaking waves, but the crew handled the boats with great skill. We docked at a relatively small, stationary dock. Because tides around this part of the Pacific Ocean are only a couple of feet, a floating dock was unnecessary. 

Easter Island is a possession of Chili and, as such, has a local governor. The island is more than 2,000 miles from the mainland, and at the time we were there, the island had no place for a plane to land. So, back then, all transport and travel between the two was by ship, with only two transports per year that brought food and medical supplies. As far as I could tell, there were no significant products to export to the mainland from Easter Island. There was a priest and three nuns on the island, who maintained a medical clinic of sorts, but I doubt they had the resources to address a major injury. They did, however, take care of John Booker’s seasickness, at least temporarily, and managed to get some food in him before we departed. The native population was probably in the order of 100.

Easter Island’s original inhabitants, the Rapa Nui people, are believed to have arrived from the west around 1200 A.D. They were apparently very industrious, finding leisure time to carve great Moai structures — the giant stone statues that are the trademark of Easter Island — and develop sufficient agriculture to support a population estimated at 2,000-3,000 by the time the first Europeans arrived in 1722. However, the deforestations and the introduction of the Polynesian rat had already begun to create an unsustainable ecosystem at that time. The history of Easter Island is a microcosm of a world where population exceeds the natural resources to sustain it, leading to starvation, internal conflicts, cannibalism and invasion. The last of those took the form of exposing the indigenous population to many new diseases for which they had no immunity and to abduction by South American slave traders.

Given their history of contact with the outside world, it is amazing how Easter Islanders were able to maintain their hospitable culture, one so characteristic of Polynesia. They were very welcoming, taking us on trips around the island on dirt paths, in the island’s one jeep and one truck. They took us to see the Moai that were liberated from the volcanic source rock and transported around the island. (Back then, very few of the Moai were still standing upright on the island with their traditional “topknots” made from red volcanic pumice. Now they are reerected all over the island for tourists.) The natives had a few horses. None, though, looked well-bred and all were difficult to ride bareback, using only a sheepskin as a saddle. A ride into one of the dormant volcanoes on one of those horses was a wild adventure.

For the natives, our visit demanded a celebration (a.k.a. luau). They butchered a sheep and cooked it over an open fire with a piece of fence wire holding it above the flames. I don’t remember any local vegetables but we brought a number of cans of fruits, meats and vegetables. While we chowed down on the mutton, the natives devoured the contents of the cans. Following the luau there was dancing (I guess this was the local version of the hula.), and some of our group, especially the professors, joined in. Notable among the dancers from the ship was Sir Edward in his long sleeve white shirt.

During our brief stay on Easter Island, I had managed to trade socks and fishing hooks for all the wood carvings I could carry. None of the natives were interested in the cheap watches that I had bought in Tijuana. (Clearly keeping track of time was not important on Easter Island then.) So I gave them away — one to the jeep driver, the others to two of the nuns. As we were leaving in the lifeboats back to the ship, I watched Sir Edward, just before getting into the boat, take off his Bermuda shorts and trade them for a tiki. This happened in front of a small crowd of amused natives, the nuns, the priest, and the governor and his wife.

As we began to leave the small harbor, I noticed the two nuns shaking their watches and putting them to their ear. I felt badly about that, but at least I had not used the watches in a trade. I had too little time to think about this as we hit the surf leaving the harbor. Every wave just missed capsizing us. Fortunately, Frankie Rodriguez, who used to work on Portuguese tuna fishing boats, was extremely skilled and got us through with no harm. Unfortunately, a couple of years later, Frankie fell off a gangplank and drowned.   A very nice guy. 

I left Easter Island with great memories and a new knowledge about South Pacific people. I would like to go back, but it may be disappointing. There is now an international airport there and a population of over 8,000 living on this 63 square mile triangle of land with a dormant volcano at each corner. Hanga Roa, where we landed, is now a city with paved streets laid out in a regular fashion as any other city, with commercial buildings, schools, churches, 280 hotels and numerous restaurants. Paved roads and highways now connect every part of the island and a Google satellite image of the Island indicates that automobiles abound. Easter Island is now a tourist destination which is apparently the basis of its economy. Once again the outside world has left its mark.

UGA Summer Marine Science Camps foster curiosity through coastal exploration

By: Emily Woodward
UGA Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant

The floor is littered with markers, paper plates and half-eaten pizza. For the past two hours, marine education interns have been creating paper plate awards for campers participating in Summer Marine Science Camps at the UGA Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant on Skidaway Island.

On the plates are drawings depicting awards like enthusiastic ecologist, coastal naturalist and blue crab queen. Each award is unique and designed to showcase a camper’s individual personality or interests.

A Women in Science summer camp group heads out on the water.

The plates are presented to the campers on the last day of camp during a ceremony attended by parents and staff.

“The paper plate creations are a great example of the commitment our summer camp team has to making Friday awards ceremony a special and memorable for each camper,” says Anne Lindsay, associate director of marine education at Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant. “In many ways, the paper plate awards ceremony is the heart of the summer camp experience.”

This particular awards ceremony will wrap up the 25th year of summer camps. Since 1993, about 5,500 children have explored the coast, and learned about the importance of marine ecosystems through hands-on activities.

Each camp session is geared towards a different age group. Activities range from salt marsh explorations to squid studies in the lab and, for older campers, trawling aboard the R/V Sea Dawg. Guest researchers are often invited to lead experiential learning activities that not only teach campers how the scientific method can be applied to projects, but also expose campers to the multidisciplinary world of marine science.

This year, the Women in Marine Science Camp, for girls 12 to 14, featured four female researchers who work in different fields of marine science at the UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography. During activities led by the researchers, campers learned how to identify phytoplankton, which are tiny microscopic organisms living in coastal waters, and built their own autonomous underwater vehicles.

“It is especially valuable for young girls to witness female professionals because it fosters a sense of inclusion,” said Julia Diaz, assistant professor of marine sciences. Diaz led an activity that involved measuring levels of phosphate in water samples collected near Skidaway Island.

“It was rewarding to see the girls enjoying the activity and discussing the topic among themselves,” Diaz said. “It showed that they were interested and engaged in the experience.”

The activity made an impression on Atlanta resident Kennedy Johnson, 12, who participated in the Women in Marine Science Camp.

“I learned much more than I already knew, and, after I came home, my passion grew for wanting to be a marine biologist,” Kennedy said.

At the core of Summer Marine Science Camp is providing opportunities that connect campers to the natural world and encourage them to be good stewards of the coastal environment through outdoor exploration.

“While they are here, I want campers to gain confidence to ask questions and inquire scientifically,” Lindsay said. “My hope is that they leave with positive feelings about themselves and their ability to explore.”

Annual open house attracts large crowd

More than 2,400 visitors attended Skidaway Marine Science Day on Saturday, October 13. This campus-wide open house event was sponsored by UGA Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, UGA Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant, and Gray’s Reef National Marine Sanctuary. The free event included a wide range of displays, tours and activities for children and adults.

UGA Skidaway Institute student receives national fellowship

Recently graduated Skidaway Institute graduate student Christine Burns has been awarded a prestigious John A. Knauss Marine Policy Fellowship.

The Knauss Fellowships are sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Sea Grant. The National Sea Grant College Program provides one-year fellowships to work in federal government offices in Washington, D.C. Burns is one of 66 finalists in the class of 2019.

The fellowships are open to students finishing a master’s, doctorate or law degree program with a focus or interest in marine science, policy or management. The applicants undergo a rigorous selection process at both the state and national level. Burns traveled to Washington, D.C. this fall to interview with several executive and legislative offices. She has been assigned to the NOAA Office of Coast Survey as the Precision Navigation Fellow.

Burns successfully defended her master’s thesis in November and received her degree in December. Her faculty advisors were Clark Alexander and Merryl Alber. Burns received her bachelor’s degree in environmental science from Dickinson College in Pennsylvania.